# Mathematics in the Past

Numbers, measurements, and precise descriptions of physical things are the tools of mathematics, which is the study of order and consistency. It has grown increasingly idealised and abstract throughout time because to its historical focus on logical reasoning and quantitative computation. Quantitative components of the physical sciences and technology have had mathematical backing since the 17th century, and this has only recently been extended to the biological sciences. If you’re struggling with division in mathematics and might use some assistance, their website is where you should start.

Counting has given way to far more sophisticated mathematical concepts such as multiplication, devision, subtraction, addition and finding the specific percentage value of a given number. in many cultures as a consequence of the demands of industry, agriculture, and other practical domains. The most significant advancements have taken place in cultures with both the technical prowess to foster such endeavours and the cultural latitude to foster introspection and the expansion on the work of previous mathematicians.

In the end, even Euclidean geometry is only a collection of axioms and the theorems that follow from them. The heart of many philosophical and logical issues in mathematics is the test of whether or not a system is complete and consistent in light of its axioms. For a more comprehensive discussion, see Mathematics, Core Ideas.

From ancient times to the current day, the history of mathematics is covered in this article. Most of the major developments in mathematics from the 15th century until the late 20th century took place in Europe and North America, and this is an undeniable historical fact. The exponential growth of science since the 15th century CE has been largely responsible for the advancement of mathematics. Therefore, the article focuses mostly on events that occurred in Europe after the year 1500.

This is not to downplay the relevance of events elsewhere in the globe. The development of mathematics in Europe from the 9th to the 15th century must be understood in the context of the mathematical achievements of Mesopotamia and Egypt, ancient Greece, and Islamic civilization. At its outset, this study delves into the ways in which the Greek and Islamic civilizations influenced one another.

Due to its impact on early Islamic mathematics, India played a part in the evolution of contemporary mathematics. Possibly the origin of mathematics and the modern decimal place-value numeral system, both of which are addressed in further detail in a separate article, can be traced back to South Asia. The article East Asian mathematics discusses the mathematical progress of East Asian countries including China, Japan, Korea, and Vietnam.

These Are the Old Math Books

To understand mathematics’ evolution, it helps to know how it got started. In order to reconstruct the development of mathematics in Mesopotamia and ancient Egypt, we rely on the surviving scribe-written manuscripts. We don’t have a much to go on when trying to determine whether Egyptian mathematics was primarily theoretical or practical, but what we do have is remarkably consistent. The mathematical abilities of the ancient Mesopotamians, on the other hand, are attested to on a number of clay tablets, and the Egyptians simply couldn’t keep up. Although the tablets make it seem like the Mesopotamians had a strong understanding of mathematics, there is no evidence to suggest that this knowledge was organised into a system. Perhaps more information will become available in the future on the origins of Mesopotamian mathematics and its impact on Greek mathematics, but for the time being, this portrayal of Mesopotamian mathematics is accurate.

Since the first known copies of Euclid’s Elements date to the 10th century CE and were written in Byzantine script, it is fair to assume that there was no substantial body of Greek mathematical literature before to Alexander the Great other than fragmented paraphrases. Contrasting sharply with the state of Egyptian and Babylonian texts, this one is very well preserved. While historians might agree on the broad strokes of Greek mathematics, they do not always agree on the finer points. Specifically, this is true of the development of the axiomatic approach, the pre-Euclidean theory of ratios, and the discovery of conic sections.

Since many of the foundational treatises from the early period of Islamic mathematics have been lost or exist only in Latin translations, there are still many unsolved concerns concerning the relationship between early Islamic mathematics and the mathematics of Greece and India. It is also difficult to describe with certainty what was distinctive in European mathematics from the 11th to the 15th century due to the huge quantity of knowledge that has survived from subsequent ages in contrast to that which has been investigated.

The advent of current printing techniques has made it considerably simpler for historians of mathematics to get manuscripts, allowing them to devote more time to studying the mathematicians’ personal letters and unpublished works. However, due to the exponential rise of mathematics, historians can only begin to explore the most important persons in any depth beginning in the nineteenth century. The difficulty of perspective also arises as we go closer to the present. For the same reason that the most cutting-edge developments in any area of human endeavour tend to be those that are closest to the era in question, the same holds true for mathematics. Therefore, this essay will not try to summarise the most recent findings.